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Family: Piperaceae
Synonyms: Piper, pepper
Note: Middle
Aroma: Warm to hot, spicy, woody.
Actions: Analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic.

Mood: Stimulating. Good for mental clarity.

Spiritual: Warming and energizing.

Aromatherapy Use: Massage mainly - excellent for muscle pains and stiffness. Can be used to treat sports injuries.
For colds and flu, it can be taken as a steam inhalation, combined with eucalyptus or marjoram.
Therapeutic Use: Not compatible with homeopathic treatment.
Circulation : anemia, poor circulation
Muscular problems : arthritis, aches and pains, rheumatism, stiffness
Respiratory system : catarrh, chills
Digestive system : colic, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn, loss of appetite, nausea
Immune system : colds, flu, infections, viruses
Other Uses: Widespread use in the food industry. Some use in perfumery ( e.g. combined with rose oil ) and alcoholic drinks.

Blends Well With: Frankincense, Lavender, Marjoram, Rosemary, Sandalwood

Sample Recipes
Warming Massage Blend

10ml Sweet Almond 
2 drops black pepper 
1 drop ginger 
1 drop marjoram 
2 drops mandarin 
Sensuous Massage Blend

10ml Sweet Almond 
2 drops black pepper 
1 drop jasmine 
1 drop coriander 
2 drops bergamot 
Uplifting Massage Blend

10ml Sweet Almond 
2 drops black pepper 
1 drop lemongrass 
1 drop rosemary 
2 drops lime 
Indian Summer Body Powder

50g sifted rice flour 
5 drops black pepper 
5 drops rose otto ( or geranium ) 
8 drops orange 
8 drops coriander 
8 drops lavender 
Put in a large glass jar, shake well and seal for 24 hours.

'Concentration' Room Burner

1 drop black pepper 
1 drop eucalyptus 
4 drops lemon 
Sore Throat Gargle

1 drop black pepper 
1 tsp cider vinegar 
1 cup warm water 
Gargle up to 3 times per day.

Chemical Analysis
A complex oil containing...

Monoterpenes (70%-80%), thujene, pinene, camphene, sabinene, carene, myrcene, limonene, phellandrene, sesquiterpenes (20%-30%).

Piperine, a water-soluble alkaloid is found in black pepper but not in the essential oil.

Safety Data
Non-toxic, non-sensitising.

Rubefacient - irritant in high concentration. Always dilute with a carrier oil.

Best avoided if pregnant.

========================== MEDICINAL USE

Black Pepper

Medicinal Properties

Pepper from Piper Nigrum is one of the oldest and world's most important spice. Black pepper is the dried fruit of Piper nigrum L. Native of Malabar coast of South Western India; pepper is also called the King of Spices.

Pepper is used in certain tonic and rubefacient preparations and also used as flavour ingredient in most major food products including non alcoholic beverages, candies, baked foods, meat and meat products, Cheese, Condiments and relishes.

The fruits are acrid, bitter, carminative, aphrodisiac, diuretic, digestive and stimulant. They are useful for arthritis, asthma, fever, cough, dysentery, dyspepsia and flatulence.

Black Pepper's aromatic, slightly musty odour. Comes from the volatile oil found largely in the flesh and skin and its pungent bite comes from the alkaloids and resins found mostly in seeds. The Oil goes into perfumes and flavouring. The scaring substance has served many purposes. They have been used as carminative, reducing stomach and intestinal gas and have been found to stimulate the activities of the heart and kidneys. Piperine is also an effective insecticide against houseflies and is also used for spraying against different types of pests in garden.

Cube berries, the fruits of a closely related cubeb pepper, P.Cubeba contain substances that have been used as antiseptics, carminative and diuretics. Ground into powder and added to cigarettes, they are smoked in the tropical areas. This variety is grown into tropics since it gives relief from throat inflammation. Oil of Cubeb is a constituent of some throat Lozenges.

Pepper In Ayurvedic And Siddha

Kat Rasa, Kat Vipakam, Ushna Veriyam, Vata Kapha haram, Pitta haram, Tikshnam, Ruksham, Lagu, Dipanam in Swasam, Soolam, Krimi hicca.

Pepper In Unani

The black pepper as a culinary spice and condiment is well known throughout the world. It removes baIgham, carminative, aphrodisiac, used in colic.

The Malabar Pepper is the best and as stimulant and carminative, is prescribed in cholera, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea and various gastric ailments.

A popular unani medicine called JAWA RISHAI THURUSH is used for indigestion and good for curing acidity in stomach, consists of pepper, ginger, embelia, ribes, black salt, rock salt, sodium chloride one palm each, mentha sativae two palms, powdered and mixed with juice of 10 Lemons. Dose: ¼ to ½ tola twice a day.

Black pepper is useful in dyspepsia and flatulence, in doses of 10 to 15 grains of the powder and in haemorrhoids, in the form of confection. 

Black pepper is occasionally employed as antiperiodic in obstinate fever either alone or with other drugs preferably quinine. With Calumba and bismuth it is used in dyspepsia and with asafoetida and comphore in flatulency. It is largely used in Cholera Pills. It is a useful ingredient in tooth powder. 

The ILAJ-UL-GURBA; a pill is recommended for Syphilis is made by black pepper, root of Calotropis Gigentia and Jaggery. Dose in one such pill twice daily. Eternally it is applied to bowls in the form of paste, also in cases of relaxed sore throat, piles, alopecia and other skin diseases. Strong friction with pepper, onions and salt will make the hair grow again upon the bald patches left by ringworm of scalp. 

Powdered black pepper and sesame oil well mixed and heated over a mild fire form an efficient application over the affected parts in case of paralysis. 

In Cholera, the following pills were held in high reputation in Bengal; Black Pepper, asafetida and opium, each 20 grams; beat them well together and divided into 12 pills; of these one was the dose, repeated every hour or every two hours, if required. 

For diarrhea pills containing the same ingredients but in different proportions viz., Two, one, ¼ grams respectively in each pills. 

A compound powder consisting of pepper, ginger, long pepper, caraway and rock salt in equal parts is a nice digestive, after food in doses of ½ to one 1 drachmas. 

For piles in aged and debilitated persons a confection made of black pepper powder of one ounce; caraway powder 1½ ounces and honey 7 ½ ounces, is useful in doses from one to two drachmas twice or thrice daily.

It proves useful also in cases of old and weak people suffering from descent of the rectum. 

For, Jaundice, ILAJ-UL-GURBA recommends a preparation made up of equal parts of black pepper and leaves of Cassia, accidental is powdered well and mixed with some water. It is to be prepared and taken twice daily. Some recommends a preparation for local application in night blindness; it is prepared out of black pepper, long pepper and Kamila all in equal parts.

An infusion of black pepper (one in 80) forms a useful stimulant gargle in relaxed sore throat and hoarseness dependent there on and in toothache also.

Piperine is given with many benefits in ague, gonorrhoea, haemorrhoids etc. in doses of three to ten grains.

It is also useful for intermittent fever, obstinate intermittent fever and flatulent dyspepsia. The black pepper drug is also used in Scorpion-Sting. 

A mixture of a pinch of pepper powder and a quarter teaspoon of common salt is an excellent dentifrice. Their daily use prevents dental caries, foul breath, bleeding from the gums, painful gums and toothaches.

Pepper is extensively used in the wintry cuisine of North India, to impart warmth and pungency to vegetable dishes. In the South, it is used as a flavoring spice in non-vegetable preparations. Pepper incidentally is an important spice in the Indian four-spice classic 'garam masala'. Pepper corns boiled in water along with basil leaves, are said to relieve chest congestions and asthmatic condition.

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